TypeScript Language Basics

Primitive Types (Boolean, Number, String)

Boolean

let isDone: boolean = false;

Number

let decimal: number = 6;
let hex: number = 0xf00d;
let binary: number = 0b1010;
let octal: number = 0o744;
let big: bigint = 100n;

String

let color: string = "blue";

let fullName: string = 'Bob Bobbington';

let age: number = 37;

let sentence: string = `Hello, my name is ${fullName}.
 
I'll be ${age + 1} years old next month.`;

Arrays

let list: number[] = [1, 2, 3];

let list2: Array<number> = [1, 2, 3];

Tuples

const x: [string, number] = ['hello', 10];

x[0] = 'world';

x[1] = 20;

console.log(`Hello ${x[0]}, ${x[1]}`);

const [a, b] = x;

const a1: Array<string | number> = [...x];

const a2 = [...x];

const a3: [string, number, Date] = ['hello', 11, new Date()];

const [greeting, age, birthDate] = a3;

const a4: [Record<PropertyKey, any>, (p: Record<PropertyKey, any>) => void] = [{}, (p) => { }];

const [counter, setCounter] = a4;

setCounter({ ...counter, name: 'kenan' });

Enums

enum Color {
  Red,
  Green,
  Blue,
}
let c: Color = Color.Green;
enum Color {
  Red = 1,
  Green = 2,
  Blue = 4,
}
let c: Color = Color.Green;
enum Color {
  Red = 1,
  Green,
  Blue,
}
let colorName: string = Color[2];
 
// Displays 'Green'
console.log(colorName);
const enum Suit {
    Clubs,
    Diamonds,
    Hearts,
    Spades
}

const a1 = Suit.Spades; // emits const a1 = 3;
enum MyFlags {
    None = 0,
    Neat = 1,
    Cool = 2,
    Awesome = 4,
    Best = Neat | Cool | Awesome
}

const a2 = MyFlags.Best; // emits const a2 = 7;

Union Types

function printId(id: number | string) {
  if (typeof id === "string") {
    // In this branch, id is of type 'string'
    console.log(id.toUpperCase());
  } else {
    // Here, id is of type 'number'
    console.log(id);
  }
}

// OK
printId(101);

// OK
printId("202");
function welcomePeople(x: string[] | string) {
  if (Array.isArray(x)) {
    // Here: 'x' is 'string[]'
    console.log("Hello, " + x.join(" and "));
  } else {
    // Here: 'x' is 'string'
    console.log("Welcome lone traveler " + x);
  }
}

Type Aliases

type ID = number | string;

type PrimitiveArray = Array<string | number | boolean>;

type MyNumber = number;

type Callback = () => void;
type Point = {
  x: number;
  y: number;
};
 
// Exactly the same as the earlier example
function printCoord(pt: Point) {
  console.log("The coordinate's x value is " + pt.x);
  console.log("The coordinate's y value is " + pt.y);
}
 
printCoord({ x: 100, y: 100 });

Interfaces

interface Point {
  x: number;
  y: number;
}
 
function printCoord(pt: Point) {
  console.log("The coordinate's x value is " + pt.x);
  console.log("The coordinate's y value is " + pt.y);
}
 
printCoord({ x: 100, y: 100 });

Type Assertions

const myCanvas = document.getElementById("main_canvas") as HTMLCanvasElement;
const myCanvas = <HTMLCanvasElement>document.getElementById("main_canvas");

Destructuring in declarations and assignments

Assignment

Swapping two variables can be written as a single destructuring assignment:

let x = 1;
let y = 2;

[y, x] = [x, y]; // emits y = 1 and x = 2;

Declaration

const user = {
    name: 'kenan',
    password: '0110010',
    isAdmin: true
};

const { name, password, isAdmin } = user;
type User = {
    name: string;
    password: string;
    isAdmin?: boolean;
};

const user: User = {
    name: 'kenan',
    password: '0110010'
};

const { name, password, isAdmin = false } = user;
const numbers: Array<number> = [1, 2, 3];

const [x, y, z, q = 4] = numbers;
const a1: [string, number, Date?] = ['hello', 11];

const [name, age, birthDate = new Date()] = a1;
function drawText({ text = "", location: [x, y] = [0, 0], bold = false }) {
    // Draw text
}

// Call drawText with an object literal
const item = { text: "someText", location: [1, 2] as [number, number], style: "italics" };
drawText(item);

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