Linux Bash: Language Basics

I will not write all story here but people were using Teletypewriter(TTY) from 1830s and 1840s. As seen in the following pictures, it was a semi-electronic device, there wasn't any monitor, output was written in a paper.

Novadays, we use computers with monitor and operating system but Linux still uses TTY concept under the hood 🙂

You can find some diagrams below relation with Terminal Emulator and TTY

Teletypewriter(Teletype, Teleprinter or TTY)
A restored 1930s Teletype is now a Linux TTY
A Teletype Model 32 ASR used for Telex service
Video terminals like the DEC VT-100 (1978) made teletypes obsolete as computer I/O devices
Terminal Emulator (Pseudo type writer or PTY)
Each Terminal Emulator window attached to separate TTY as shown in the above screenshot.
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TypeScript Recursive Type

Below two code blocks are doing same job and the only difference is below second code block uses variadic tuple. Check the below links for more details.

https://www.typescriptlang.org/docs/handbook/release-notes/typescript-3-7.html#more-recursive-type-aliases

https://www.typescriptlang.org/docs/handbook/release-notes/typescript-4-1.html#recursive-conditional-types

type CompareLength<Left extends any[], Right extends any[]> =
    Left['length'] extends Right['length'] ? 'equal' :
    Left extends [] ? 'shorterLeft' :
    Right extends [] ? 'shorterRight' :
    ((..._: Left) => any) extends ((_: any, ..._1: infer LeftRest) => any) ?
    ((..._: Right) => any) extends ((_: any, ..._1: infer RightRest) => any) ?
    CompareLength<LeftRest, RightRest> :
    never :
    never;

type T1 = CompareLength<[firstName: string], [lastName: string]>;

type T2 = CompareLength<[firstName: string], [lastName: string, age: number]>;

type T3 = CompareLength<[firstName: string, age: number], [lastName: string]>;
type CompareLength<Left extends any[], Right extends any[]> =
    Left['length'] extends Right['length'] ? 'equal' :
    Left extends [] ? 'shorterLeft' :
    Right extends [] ? 'shorterRight' :
    Left extends [any, ...infer L] ? 
    Right extends [any, ...infer R] ? 
    CompareLength<L, R> :
    never :
    never;

type T1 = CompareLength<[firstName: string], [lastName: string]>;

type T2 = CompareLength<[firstName: string], [lastName: string, age: number]>;

type T3 = CompareLength<[firstName: string, age: number], [lastName: string]>;

TypeScript Exhaustiveness Checking Part 2

type HttpMethod = "GET" | "POST" | "PUT" | "DELETE";

const sendRequest = (url: string, method: HttpMethod) => {
    switch (method) {
        case 'DELETE':

            break;
        case 'GET':

            break;
        case 'POST':

            break;
        case 'PUT':

            break;
        default:
            const exhaustiveCheck: never = method; // ✅ no error
            throw new Error(`Unhandled case: ${exhaustiveCheck}`);
    }
};
type Fruit = 'banana' | 'orange' | 'mango';

function exhaustiveCheck(param: never): never {
    throw new Error('should not reach here')
}

function makeDessert(fruit: Fruit) {
    switch (fruit) {
        case 'banana': return 'Banana Shake'
        case 'orange': return 'Orange Juice'
    }
    exhaustiveCheck(fruit) // 🚫 ERROR! `mango` is not assignable
}
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TypeScript Exhaustiveness Checking

Exhaustiveness checking is a good feature when you use switch block. Assume that you need to check a value of variable which data type is union type as shown below screenshot.

Shape is a discriminated union which consists of three types named Circle, Square and Triangle.

kind field is shared in Circle, Square and Triangle types so that if developer forgets to use any of kind field value in switch block, TypeScript will error in coding-time.

Notice that there is a red line in line 347, it is due to missing triangle case in switch block.

This is the error shown in the code.

After adding triangle case in line 346, the error disappeared.

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