How to install Python packages with pipenv, venv or virtualenv package manager

You can find GitHub repository in https://github.com/python-projects-kenanhancer/python_demo

  • Pyenv – Python Runtime Version Manager
  • Pipenv – Python Package Manager and Virtual environment manager
  • Venv – Virtual environment manager
  • Virtualenv – Virtual environment manager

Installing Python Runtime Versions via Pyenv

In order to test different Python Runtime versions, I have installed some versions.

$ pyenv install 3.10.2

python-build: use openssl@1.1 from homebrew
python-build: use readline from homebrew
Downloading Python-3.10.2.tar.xz...
-> https://www.python.org/ftp/python/3.10.2/Python-3.10.2.tar.xz
Installing Python-3.10.2...
python-build: use tcl-tk from homebrew
python-build: use readline from homebrew
python-build: use zlib from xcode sdk
Installed Python-3.10.2 to /Users/kenanhancer/.pyenv/versions/3.10.2

I have 4 Python runtime versions(3.10.2, 3.10.3, 3.10.4, 3.10.5) in my machine.

$ pyenv versions

  system
  3.10.2
  3.10.3
  3.10.4
* 3.10.5 (set by /Users/kenanhancer/.pyenv/version)
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Docker

Docker is written in the Go programming language.

The Docker daemon

The Docker daemon ( dockerd cli ) listens for Docker API requests and manages Docker objects such as images, containers, networks, and volumes.

A docker daemon can also communicate with other docker daemons to manage Docker services.

The Docker client

The Docker client ( docker cli ) is the primary way to interact with Docker.

When you use commands such as docker run, docker build, docker pull , the Docker client sends these commands to dockerd .

The docker command uses the Docker API.

The Docker client ( docker cli ) can communicate with more than one Docker daemon.

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Linux Terminal Check stdin, stdout and stderr

When we want to check whether current terminal is attached to stdin, stdout and stderr streams or not, we can use the below codes. I tried with piping, and redirection so both works well.

As seen in below 6 usages, stdin is not listed in output of commands except first one. Because stdin is used by piping or redirection.

$  ([ -t 0 ] && echo stdin; [ -t 1 ] && echo stdout; [ -t 2 ] && echo stderr; echo hello)

stdin
stdout
stderr
hello
$ echo hello | ([ -t 0 ] && echo stdin; [ -t 1 ] && echo stdout; [ -t 2 ] && echo stderr; cat)

stdout
stderr
hello
$ ([ -t 0 ] && echo stdin; [ -t 1 ] && echo stdout; [ -t 2 ] && echo stderr; cat) <<<"hello"

stdout
stderr
hello
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Docker: MySQL, MariaDB, PostgreSQL

docker-compose.yml

version: '3.4'

services:
  mysql:
    image: mysql:latest
    container_name: mysql
    command: --default-authentication-plugin=mysql_native_password
    restart: always
    environment:
      MYSQL_ROOT_PASSWORD: root
      MYSQL_DATABASE: test_db
      MYSQL_USER: test
      MYSQL_PASSWORD: test
    ports:
      - 3306:3306
    volumes:
      - mysql_db_data_container:/var/lib/mysql:rw
      - ${PWD}/docker/mysql/initdb_sql_scripts:/docker-entrypoint-initdb.d/:ro
      - ${PWD}/docker/mysql/mysql.conf:/etc/mysql/conf.d
    healthcheck:
      test: "/usr/bin/mysql --user=root --password=password --execute \"SHOW DATABASES;\""
      interval: 2s
      timeout: 20s
      retries: 10

  mariadb:
    image: mariadb:latest
    container_name: mariadb
    restart: unless-stopped
    environment:
      MYSQL_ROOT_PASSWORD: root
      MYSQL_DATABASE: test_db
      MYSQL_USER: test
      MYSQL_PASSWORD: test
    ports:
      - 3307:3306
    volumes:
      - mariadb_data_container:/var/lib/mysql:rw
      - ${PWD}/docker/mariadb/initdb_sql_scripts:/docker-entrypoint-initdb.d/:ro
      - ${PWD}/docker/mariadb/mariadb.conf:/etc/mysql/conf.d

  postgres:
    image: postgres:latest
    container_name: postgres
    restart: always
    environment:
      POSTGRES_DB: test_db
      POSTGRES_USER: test
      POSTGRES_PASSWORD: test
    ports:
      - 5432:5432
    volumes:
      - postgres_db_data_container:/var/lib/postgresql/data:rw
      - ${PWD}/docker/postgres/initdb_sql_scripts:/docker-entrypoint-initdb.d:ro
      - ${PWD}/docker/postgres/postgres.conf:/etc/postgresql/postgresql.conf

volumes:
  mysql_db_data_container:
  mariadb_data_container:
  postgres_db_data_container:
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Azure DevOps REST API

When we need to create, retrieve, update or delete access to the Azure DevOps services's resources, we can use Azure DevOps REST API.

Find more Azure DevOps REST services in https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/rest/api/azure/devops/?view=azure-devops-rest-7.1

Process REST API

Get Process Id in your organization

Find more details in https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/rest/api/azure/devops/core/processes/list?view=azure-devops-rest-7.1

ORGANIZATION=$1

PROCESS_NAME=$2

PAT=$3

curl --silent --user :$PAT \
--request GET "https://dev.azure.com/$ORGANIZATION/_apis/process/processes?api-version=6.0" | jq -r '.value[] | select(.name=="'$PROCESS_NAME'") | .id'
$ . ./getProcessId.sh kenanhancer Agile blablabla

adcc42ab-9882-485e-a3ed-7678f01f66bc

Get Process in your organization

Find more details in https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/rest/api/azure/devops/core/processes/get?view=azure-devops-rest-7.1

echo -n "Organization: " && read ORGANIZATION

echo -n "Process Name: " && read PROCESS_NAME

echo -n "PAT: " && read PAT

PROCESS_ID=$(. ./getProcessId.sh $ORGANIZATION $PROCESS_NAME $PAT)

curl --silent --user :$PAT \
--request GET "https://dev.azure.com/$ORGANIZATION/_apis/process/processes/$PROCESS_ID?api-version=6.0" | jq -r .
$ . ./getProcess.sh
Organization: kenanhancer
Process Name: Agile
PAT: blablabla

{
  "id": "adcc42ab-9882-485e-a3ed-7678f01f66bc",
  "description": "This template is flexible and will work great for most teams using Agile planning methods, including those practicing Scrum.",
  "isDefault": true,
  "_links": {
    "self": {
      "href": "https://dev.azure.com/kenanhancer/_apis/process/processes/adcc42ab-9882-485e-a3ed-7678f01f66bc"
    }
  },
  "type": "system",
  "url": "https://dev.azure.com/kenanhancer/_apis/process/processes/adcc42ab-9882-485e-a3ed-7678f01f66bc",
  "name": "Agile"
}
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Azure DevOps: Creating Personal Access Token (PAT)

Sign in to your organisation (https://dev.azure.com/{yourorganization})

Treat and use a PAT like your password and keep it a secret.

Use your PAT anywhere your user credentials are required for authentication in Azure DevOps.

You can use a personal access token (PAT) as an alternate password to authenticate into Azure DevOps.

A personal access token contains your security credentials for Azure DevOps. A PAT identifies you, your accessible organizations, and scopes of access. As such, they're as critical as passwords, so you should treat them the same way.

If you're working within Microsoft tools, then your Microsoft account (MSA) or Azure Active Directory (Azure AD) is an acceptable and well-supported approach. But, if you're working with third-party tools that don't support Microsoft or Azure AD accounts – or you don't want to provide your primary credentials to the tool – use PATs to limit your risk.

find more details about creating PAT in Azure DevOps

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Linux Bash: Language Basics

I will not write all story here but people were using Teletypewriter(TTY) from 1830s and 1840s. As seen in the following pictures, it was a semi-electronic device, there wasn't any monitor, output was written in a paper.

Novadays, we use computers with monitor and operating system but Linux still uses TTY concept under the hood 🙂

You can find some diagrams below relation with Terminal Emulator and TTY

Teletypewriter(Teletype, Teleprinter or TTY)
A restored 1930s Teletype is now a Linux TTY
A Teletype Model 32 ASR used for Telex service
Video terminals like the DEC VT-100 (1978) made teletypes obsolete as computer I/O devices
Terminal Emulator (Pseudo type writer or PTY)
Each Terminal Emulator window attached to separate TTY as shown in the above screenshot.
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TypeScript Recursive Type

Below two code blocks are doing same job and the only difference is below second code block uses variadic tuple. Check the below links for more details.

https://www.typescriptlang.org/docs/handbook/release-notes/typescript-3-7.html#more-recursive-type-aliases

https://www.typescriptlang.org/docs/handbook/release-notes/typescript-4-1.html#recursive-conditional-types

type CompareLength<Left extends any[], Right extends any[]> =
    Left['length'] extends Right['length'] ? 'equal' :
    Left extends [] ? 'shorterLeft' :
    Right extends [] ? 'shorterRight' :
    ((..._: Left) => any) extends ((_: any, ..._1: infer LeftRest) => any) ?
    ((..._: Right) => any) extends ((_: any, ..._1: infer RightRest) => any) ?
    CompareLength<LeftRest, RightRest> :
    never :
    never;

type T1 = CompareLength<[firstName: string], [lastName: string]>;

type T2 = CompareLength<[firstName: string], [lastName: string, age: number]>;

type T3 = CompareLength<[firstName: string, age: number], [lastName: string]>;
type CompareLength<Left extends any[], Right extends any[]> =
    Left['length'] extends Right['length'] ? 'equal' :
    Left extends [] ? 'shorterLeft' :
    Right extends [] ? 'shorterRight' :
    Left extends [any, ...infer L] ? 
    Right extends [any, ...infer R] ? 
    CompareLength<L, R> :
    never :
    never;

type T1 = CompareLength<[firstName: string], [lastName: string]>;

type T2 = CompareLength<[firstName: string], [lastName: string, age: number]>;

type T3 = CompareLength<[firstName: string, age: number], [lastName: string]>;