Covariance and Contravariance

In C#, covariance and contravariance enable implicit reference conversion for array types, delegate types, and generic type arguments. Covariance preserves assignment compatibility and contravariance reverses it.

A generic interface or delegate is called variant if its generic parameters are declared covariant or contravariant. C# enables you to create your own variant interfaces and delegates.

In .NET Framework 4 or newer C# supports covariance and contravariance in generic interfaces and delegates and allows for implicit conversion of generic type parameters.

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